Baena is a town in the province of Cordoba in the autonomous community of Andalusia. It has a population of over 20,000 and an area of 360 km².
When the Romans occupied the town, they named it Baniana or Biniana, which is the origin of its present-day name. Many important archaeological sites date to this era, the most significant being Torreparedones Archaeological Park. Occupied by the Moors in the eighth century, the town was founded on the top of the hill where it stands today, and is surrounded by fortifications. It preserves part of its original fortress and the maze of streets of the Moorish Almedina in the old quarter.